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Oracle wins legal battle against Google over use of Java code in Android


Oracle wins appeal against Google in landmark copyright case

The never ending legal battle between Oracle and Google took a new twist on Tuesday when the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit in Washington ruled that Google’s use of Java shortcuts to develop Android “went too far” and was “a violation of Oracle’s copyrights”. This decision could see Google pay Oracle billions in damages, as the eight-year-long dispute between the two software giants draws near a close, reports Bloomberg.

For those unaware, Java was created by Sun Microsystems back in the 1990s and Oracle acquired the company in 2010. The legal battle between Oracle and Google formally started in 2010 over bits of Java code called Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) – a set of routines, protocols, and tools for building software applications. APIs are useful as developers don’t have to write new code from scratch to implement every new function or change it for every new type of device.

Eight months after the purchase, Oracle accused Google of using its copyrighted APIs in its Android mobile operating system and filed a lawsuit. Since then, both the companies have gone through federal trials and multiple appeals courts in the U.S.

In May 2016, Oracle lost the plagiarism case it had filed against Google, as the search giant had argued that the copying fell within the “fair use” provision of copyright law, which meant it was free to use. At that time, a jury of 10 unanimously agreed with Google who found that the search giant’s use of declaring code, and the structure, sequence, and organization of Java APIs was fair use.

Google at the time, said that its victory at trial was “a win for the Android ecosystem; for the Java programming community and for software developers who rely on open and free programming languages to build innovative consumer products.”

However, Oracle went ahead and appealed the ruling in the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit, and asked them to overrule the federal jury’s decision taken in May 2016 that says Google’s use of Oracle software didn’t violate copyright law. As of 2016, Oracle sought $9 billion in damages as part of the lawsuit it first filed in 2010.

Finally, the U.S. Court of Appeals in its decision on Tuesday (March 27, 2018) ruled that Google’s use of APIs was “unfair as a matter of law.”

“The fact that Android is free of charge does not make Google’s use of the Java API packages noncommercial,” the three-judge panel wrote in its decision. It also pointed out that Android has made more than $42 billion in revenue from advertising and that Google had not made any changes of the copyrighted material.

“There is nothing fair about taking a copyrighted work verbatim and using it for the same purpose and function as the original in a competing platform,” it stated.

Oracle said its APIs are freely available to those who want to build applications for computers and mobile devices, but draws the line at anyone who wants to use them for a competing platform or to embed them in an electronic device.

Welcoming the ruling, Dorian Daley, an Oracle executive vice president and the company’s general counsel, in a statement said, “The Federal Circuit’s opinion upholds fundamental principles of copyright law and makes clear that Google violated the law. This decision protects creators and consumers from the unlawful abuse of their rights.”

On the other hand, Google and its supporters said that extending copyright protection to APIs, would threaten innovation and lead to higher costs for consumers.

“We are disappointed the court reversed the jury finding that Java is open and free for everyone,” Google said in a statement. “This type of ruling will make apps and online services more expensive for users. We are considering our options.”

Google is likely to ask the three-judge panel to reconsider its decision or ask the full appeals court to review the decision. The case could even go all the way to the Supreme Court of the U.S.

The case has been closely followed by the tech industry because of its extensive implications for software innovation and copyright law

How To Hack Wi-Fi Password Without Cracking By Using Wifiphisher

Hack any Wi-Fi password using Wifiphisher without cracking

Disclaimer: This tutorial is for educational purpose only. Hacking Wi-Fi passwords may be illegal in your part of the world.

One of the many queries we get from our readers is how to hack Wi-Fi password. Though there are many ways to hack Wi-Fi, today we are going to show you how to hack any WiFi password using Wifiphisher. The beauty of Wifiphisher is that it can hack WPA/WPA2 protected Wi-Fi networks without cracking.

Without much ado, here is how you should go about how to hack Wi-Fi password without cracking using Wifiphisher. Read the disclaimer above and proceed at your own risk.
What is WiFiphisher?

Wifiphisher is a security tool that mounts automated phishing attacks against WiFi networks in order to obtain secret passphrases that people use to lack their Wi-Fi networks. Basically, it is a social engineering tool unlike other methods which use brute force attacks. Wifiphisher presents a very easy way of obtaining WPA/WPA2 protected secret passwords.
How does it work?

WiFiphisher creates an evil twin AP, then de-authenticate or DoS the user from their real AP. The Wi-Fi user logs in to find the Wi-Fi needs re-authentication and that is where Wifiphisher works great. The Wifiphisher redirects the Wi-Fi user to fake AP with the same SSID.

After connecting with fake AP, the owner of the Wi-Fi network will see a legitimate looking webpage that requests him/her to input password to “Upgrade firmware.” When the user enters the password in the cloned web page, it is reported back to the hacker without the knowledge of the Wi-Fi user. User allowed further to access the internet from fake evil twin AP, so they can’t feel anything suspicious.

The Wi-Fi owner goes about surfing the internet obvious to the fact that you have hacked his/her Wi-Fi password using Wifiphisher.

Requirements to Hack Wi-Fi using Wifiphisher Hacking tool

PC/laptop running on Kali LINUX
Download Wifiphisher from GitHub.

Step 1: Install or Update Python

First, you have to install or update “python” in Kali LINUX. Open the terminal and type below command

apt-get install python

How To Hack Wi-Fi Password Without Cracking By Using Wifiphisher
Step 2: Unpack Wifiphisher script

After installing python, you have to unpack the Wifiphisher.

kali > tar -xvzf /root/wifiphisher-1.1.tar.gz

Alternatively, you can clone the code from GitHub by typing:

kali > git clone https://github/sophron/wifiphisher.git

How To Hack Wi-Fi Password Without Cracking By Using Wifiphisher

Step 3: Navigate to the directory

Navigate to the directory where Wifiphisher has been installed.To navigate type below command in terminal.

cd wifiphisher/

How To Hack Wi-Fi Password Without Cracking By Using Wifiphisher

Now confirm the name of the script. To confirm the name of script, type

ls -l
Step 4: Run the Script “”

To run script type below commands in terminal and hit enter.


How To Hack Wi-Fi Password Without Cracking By Using Wifiphisher

Once installed the first time you run the script, it will likely tell you that “hostapd” is not found and will prompt you to install it. Install by typing “y” for yes. It will then proceed to install hostapd.

When it has completed, once again, execute the Wifiphisher script.

kali > python

This time, it will start the web server on port 8080 and 443, then go about and discover the available Wi-Fi networks. Wifiphisher will get to work and list all the Wi-Fi networks it has discovered.
Step 5: Select AP and Get the Password

From the listed Wi-Fi networks, select your target AP. To select target just press ctrl+c (to stop scanning) and type “num” of AP. After entering num hit enter. The Wifiphisher will show you the target APs SSID and Mac address. Now let the Wifiphisher do its magic and clone this SSID while jamming the real AP. Once this process is completed, the Wifiphisher will direct the original owner of the Wi-Fi network to the cloned page and ask them to re-authenticate their login credentials.

After connecting to evil twin AP, Wifiphisher serves a legitimate looking proxy web page and display a message to the Wi-Fi owner that his/her firmware is being upgraded and they should enter their username and passphrase.

When the user enters their password, it will be passed to you through the Wifiphisher open terminal. Thus Wifiphisher does its job without cracking or even letting the Wi-Fi user know he/she has been hacked.

Researchers believe aliens can destroy humankind with a malware

Aliens will send simple messages through Artificial Intelligence to destroy humanity, researchers claim

Just when we thought we have had enough of worries on our plate, such as ransomware, data theft, DDoS (denial of service attacks), a joint study done by two researchers last month has revealed that alien civilization could destroy the Earth with just AI (artificial intelligence) messages and that too without visiting us.

The academic paper titled “Interstellar Communication. IX. Message decontamination is impossible” has been written by Michael Hippke of the Sonneberg Observatory in Germany and John Learned of the University of Hawaii. The paper discusses about a possible alien invasion either intentionally or unintentionally, by embedding code in a message.

“It is cheaper for an extraterrestrial intelligence (ETI) to send a malicious message to eradicate humans compared to sending battleships,” the researchers wrote.

They claim that such a message would be impossible to decode and could pose an “existential threat,” hence, humans should use extreme caution to open up the message.

“A complex message from space may require the use of computers to display, analyze and understand. Such a message cannot be decontaminated with certainty, and technical risks remain which can pose an existential threat. Complex messages would need to be destroyed in the risk averse case,” the researchers added.

The researchers explain that if we do receive messages that appear ‘positive and interesting’, it would probably be better to have them printed rather than try and open it on a computer, as any kind of advanced malware message could destroy the technologies on our planet and completely shut them down.

They suggest that the messages we send to the aliens need to be carefully considered.

“As we realize that some message types are potentially dangerous, we can adapt our own peaceful transmissions accordingly,” the researchers write. “We should certainly not transmit any code.

“Instead, a plain text encyclopedia, images, music etc. in a simple format are adequate. No advanced computer should be required to decrypt our message.”

While the good news is that the threat of a malicious contact is extremely low but it is not zero, the researchers claim.

“It is always wise to understand the risks and chances beforehand, and make a conscious choice for, or against it, rather than blindly following a random path.

“Overall, we believe that the risk is very small (but not zero), and the potential benefit very large, so that we strongly encourage to read an incoming message,” the researchers say.

Uber Self-driving Car Kills Woman In Arizona

Uber self-driving Car hits, kills Arizona pedestrian; company suspends testing

The self-driving car, which is considered to the future of transportation, was involved in a fatal vehicle accident that killed one pedestrian woman. An Uber self-driving car in Arizona was involved in a crash that killed a woman crossing the street early on Monday, ABC15 reported, making it the first fatality involving an autonomous vehicle in the U.S.

The Tempe police said in a statement that the self-driving car was in autonomous mode when the vehicle struck 49-year-old Elaine Herzberg while she was walking outside of a crosswalk. Herzberg was taken to a hospital where she later died of her injuries.

“The pedestrian was outside of the crosswalk. As soon as she walked into the lane of traffic she was struck,” Tempe Police Sergeant Ronald Elcock told reporters during a news conference. While the vehicle was moving around 40 miles per hour when it struck Herzberg reveal the preliminary investigation, it is not yet known how close Herzberg was to the vehicle when she stepped into the lane, he added.

Elcock also said he believed Herzberg may have been homeless.

Chief of police Sylvia Moir told the San Francisco Chronicle on Monday that video footage taken from cameras fitted to the autonomous Volvo SUV potentially indicate that Uber is not at fault and the victim is more likely to be blamed for the incident.

“It’s very clear it would have been difficult to avoid this collision in any kind of mode [autonomous or human-driven] based on how she came from the shadows right into the roadway,” Moir told the paper, adding that the incident took place roughly 100 yards from a crosswalk. “It is dangerous to cross roadways in the evening hour when well-illuminated managed crosswalks are available,” she said.

Although the vehicle was operating in autonomous mode, a driver was present in the front seat. But Moir said there appears to be little he could have done to intervene before the crash.

“The driver said it was like a flash, the person walked out in front of them,” Moir said. “His first alert to the collision was the sound of the collision.”

Following the incident, Uber said it has suspended North American tests of its self-driving vehicles, which are currently going on in Arizona, Pittsburgh and Toronto. Uber said in a statement on Twitter: “Our hearts go out to the victim’s family. We are fully cooperating with local authorities in their investigation of this incident.” However, a spokesman refused to comment further on the crash.

Uber’s CEO, tweeted: “Some incredibly sad news out of Arizona. We’re thinking of the victim’s family as we work with local law enforcement to understand what happened.”

The incident is currently being investigated by Tempe authorities and federal officials. Canada’s transportation ministry in Ontario, where Uber conducts testing, also said it was reviewing the accident.

Video footage will help the ongoing investigation, and the case would be submitted to the district attorney, Elcock said.

“Our investigators have that information, and they will be using that in their investigation as well as the Maricopa County Attorney’s Office as part of their investigation,” said Elcock. “They are going to attempt to try to find who was possibly at fault and how we can better be safe, whether it’s pedestrians or whether it’s the vehicle itself.”

The latest incident is a prime example that self-driving technology is still in its early stage of development and hence, self-driving cars are not yet ready for our roads.

The Tech that Will Help You Through University

University has never been a breeze. Studying hard and balancing that against what is often a newfound experience of freedom, can take a lot of practice to figure out, and even then many of us don’t manage to master it by the time we leave. Luckily for us, we live in an age where our advanced technology allows us many advantages that simply were not viable to classes of the past. In this article, we’ll go over just a few of the smart tech which can help create the difference between success and failure, making your life easier in the process.
Mobile Hardware

A modern piece of technology which no student should be without if they can help it. Any piece of sufficiently advanced mobile equipment will work here, whether a phone, tablet or laptop. This helps not only in being able to easily check online for updates but in allowing the quick research of anything which comes up in real time. This is something our parents would have killed for, so make the most of it.

Advanced Search

Many of us perform searches on the web every day, but many of us only know the most basic facets of this type of information gathering. Learning a few extra search commands, also known as “search operators”, to use on Google can massively increase the efficacy of your searches, and finding the right searches on which to search can also create a world of difference in usable results. Most commonly, at least on our end, we found the – command especially helpful for Google. This can be used to simply remove any results with the word following the -. A little thing, but one which can make all the difference, and this is only one of many possible options.

Another good bet, especially when you’re really stuck, is taking advantage of the already existing homework market to get an idea of the correct answer. There are websites out there which can help with direct questions, for those without the time to mess around.

Finally, be sure to check out websites dedicated to academic article searches, like Google Scholar. These are a godsend when it comes to proper citations, not only in terms of actually counting as real citations but in terms of also generating the exact citation for you, so you don’t have to bother with the constant hassle.

Social Media

Despite being a form of technology that is so widely used by so many people, there are some who would rather avoid having their personal information online. While this is something we can absolutely agree with this, there are issues when it comes to group work that becomes so much easier with access to social media. Websites like Facebook, for example, allow a simple creation of groups for classes and assignments that are simply not possible in everyday situations. In cases like this, it can absolutely be worth to create an account to take advantage. Alternatively, there are other platforms and forums where such conversation can take place, but it’s often up to what the creator of the group has chosen to use – and, more often than not, that’s Facebook. If you are concerned about your private data, considering keeping your profile devoid of other information, just use it to access the study group.

Stay Alert

Be sure to keep an eye out when it comes to new developments in helpful technology. This is a marketplace and forum which continues to develop alongside the new technology, and it is often the first adopters who manage to pull out ahead of the pack. Remember what we wrote, and keep an eye on what your successful classmates use, and you’ll be well on your way to a much more successful university experience.

Human trials to start for cancer vaccine that triggers the body to attack all tumors after injecting just one

A cancer vaccine that attacks tumors all over the body is entering human trials.

A team at Stanford University – which developed one of the current most widely-used cancer treatments – claims that just one injection into one tumor triggers a full-body defensive response, attacking all other tumors that may have spread.

The shot, a combination of two, actives the immune system to fight the cancer.

After eliminating even the most distant spread of cancer in mice, the two lead authors are now recruiting lymphoma patients to try the shot in a clinical trial.

Since the shot’s application is so localized, the researchers insist it is cost-effective and unlikely to cause adverse side effects often seen in other kinds of immune simulation.

‘When we use these two agents together, we see the elimination of tumors all over the body,’ said lead author Ronald Levy, MD, professor of oncology, whose lab developed Rituximab, a widely-used form of chemotherapy.

‘This approach bypasses the need to identify tumor-specific immune targets and doesn’t require wholesale activation of the immune system or customization of a patient’s immune cells.’

According to the team, the shot could work for many different types of cancer.

It holds a unique place in the field of immunotherapy

While some approaches stimulate the entire immune system, others target certain areas to block the cancer from straying, and others (like the newly-approved CAR T-cell therapy) removed immune cells from the body to genetically-engineer them.

All have been hailed a success.

But all have caveats, be they arduous to prepare, lengthy to administer, or excruciating in their side effects.

‘All of these immunotherapy advances are changing medical practice,’ Levy said.

‘Our approach uses a one-time application of very small amounts of two agents to stimulate the immune cells only within the tumor itself. In the mice, we saw amazing, bodywide effects, including the elimination of tumors all over the animal.’

The method works to reactivate the cancer-specific T cells by injecting microgram (a millionth of a gram) amounts of two agents directly into the tumor site.

The first, a short stretch of DNA, works with nearby immune cells to heighten the expression of an activating receptor on the surface of the T cells.

The second, an antibody that binds to the receptor, activates the T cells to attack the cancer cells.

By injecting it direct into the tumor, it is specifically training T cells which already recognize cancer because they are already inside it.

‘This is a very targeted approach,’ Levy said.

‘Only the tumor that shares the protein targets displayed by the treated site is affected. We’re attacking specific targets without having to identify exactly what proteins the T cells are recognizing.’

For the trial, Levy plans to recruit 15 patients with low-grade lymphoma.

If successful, Levy believes the treatment could be useful for many tumor types.

Down the line, he believes oncologists could inject both into solid tumors in humans before surgery as a way to prevent recurrence from stray tumors that spread but weren’t detected.

‘I don’t think there’s a limit to the type of tumor we could potentially treat, as long as it has been infiltrated by the immune system,’ Levy said.gfgb8

How to move to Canada and become a Canadian citizen

If the American political climate has you stressed, you may find yourself imagining a move to Canada.

It’s a land where healthcare is free, people are friendly, and Prime Minister Justin Trudeau explains quantum computing just for laughs.

But actually becoming a citizen is tough: You need to live in Canada for at least six years, stay on your best behavior, and know a thing or two about the country you’ll soon call home.

For those who actually want to head up north, here’s how you move to Canada.

Preface: Make sure you’re not already a Canadian citizen.

Before you go through the hassle of applying for citizenship, take a short quiz to see if you may already be Canadian.

The government outlines several caveats for being a citizen even if you weren’t born there, many of which depend on your parents’ citizenship. Maybe you secretly inherited their status at some point along the way.

Be at least 18 years old.​

If you’re not a legal adult, you’ve got an uphill climb ahead of you.

Minors need their parent or legal guardian to fill out the application for them, although the parent does not personally need to be a citizen.

Or enter the pool for skilled immigrants.​

Canada has a fast-track system for immigration called Express Entry. It’s how skilled workers transition into a role in the country.

All applicants into Express Entry are given specific scores based on their specific talents and job prospects and then ranked with other applicants. Those at the top of the rankings are invited to become permanent residents.

Have a permanent residence in Canada.​

To become a permanent resident, people can choose between several avenues. They can apply through the province of their choice, go down a special entrepreneur route, get help from a family member who lives in Canada, or go through Quebec, which has special immigration requirements.

Permanent residents are entitled to healthcare coverage and can work, study, and travel anywhere in Canada. You just can’t vote, run for office, or hold some jobs with high security clearance.

Declare your intent to reside.

If you’re invited to become a permanent resident, you must confirm your plans to stay Canadian. The government defines permanent residence as living in Canada for at least three years in a five-year period.

(Days spent in Canada before permanent residence status count as half-days, up to a maximum of a year, and can be used toward the citizenship requirement.)

If you don’t spend that much time within the borders, you could lose your permanent residence status. However, you may still work outside Canada as a public official known as a Crown Servant or live abroad with certain family members who are Crown Servants.

Spend six years at that residence.​

Permanent residents don’t always become citizens. The bar for citizenship is higher.

If you’re living in Canada, you must have been a permanent resident and physically present in Canada for at least 1,460 days (four 365-day periods) in the six years immediately before the date of your application.

You must also be present for 183 days (half a year) during each of the four calendar years that are fully or partially within the six years before the application date.

In other words, your time in Canada needs to stay relatively consistent.

Provide your income tax filing.

Like the residence requirement, you must be able to provide three years’ worth of tax returns in the five-year period leading up to the date of your application.

Basically, they want to see if your job is legit.

Speak English or French.​

Along with dozens of other countries, Canada has two official languages: English and French.

To become a citizen, you need to know just one. You don’t need to be fluent, just conversational enough to make small talk, give directions, use basic grammar, and know your vocab well enough to describe yourself.

You’ll send along written documents with your application, but a citizenship officer will make the final call whether your English or French is up to snuff.

Know a thing or two about Canada.

You should probably brush up on your Canadian history anyway, but the government also issues a formal quiz to applicants on the history, values, institutions, and symbols of Canada.

You take the test if you’re between 18 and 54 years old. Typically, it’s a written test, but the citizenship officer may also ask questions orally.

There are no real surprises. Everything you’d need to know can be found here: Discover Canada: The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship.

Know why your application might get denied.​

There are a number of reasons your past may prohibit you from becoming a Canadian citizen.

For instance, the government looks down upon granting citizenship to people who have committed a crime within four years of submitting their application or are on trial for a crime.

It also specifies that people in prison can’t use their sentence towards becoming a permanent residence. (That doesn’t quite fit with the “intent to reside.”)

Invest in durable clothes for your local climate.

Canada is the second-largest country on earth, behind Russia. As such, there is no singular “Canadian climate,” even if people may think it’s just cold most of the time.

Depending on how close you live to the British Columbia coast, for example, spring can begin as early as February and summer temperatures can rise into the 90s.

So if you’re looking for places to take up permanent residence, research what the weather’s like. You won’t waste money or space buying unnecessary items.

Take advantage of the customs of your new life.

Now that you’ve left your home country behind (and if you’re an American, abandoned the circus of presidential elections), embrace what makes Canada unique.

Many Canadians express deep fondness for Tim Hortons, quirky slang, celebrity ambassadors, and hockey.

No one will expect you to dive headfirst into this new world, but if you want to become a genuine citizen, formal requirements are only the start.

Facebook Bans Bitcoin And All Other Cryptocurrency Ads On Its Social Network

As a part of their refreshed advertising policy, Facebook won’t allow advertisements related to cryptocurrencies, initial coin offerings (ICO), and binary trading, according to a post made by company’s product management director Rob Leathern.

“Ads must not promote financial products and services that are frequently associated with misleading or deceptive promotional practices, such as binary options, initial coin offerings, or cryptocurrency. Please click here to learn more,” the new policy reads.

Although the names aren’t explicitly mentioned, this will prohibit anyone from promoting cryptocoins like Bitcoin, Ethereum, Monero, Litecoin, etc. Some of the examples include ads providing discounted ICOs, asking users to pay retirement funds in Bitcoin, etc.

Facebook cryptocurrency ads ban

Leathern agrees that the policy is “intentionally broad” and it might affect legitimate crypto advertisers, but Facebook could make changes in the future as their signals improve. Also, their tracking system might not be fool-proof as it sounds, some ads may manage to slip through their filters. If that happens, Facebook provides users an option to report advertisements.

This move from Facebook could “better detect deceptive and misleading advertising practices” and safeguard users from online scammers running false offers and trying to pump hard earned money out of people’s pockets. The new advertising policy applies to the company’s platforms including Facebook, Instagram, and Audience Network.

Dangerous Hidden Warning Signs That Your Liver Is Full Of Toxins

Our body is a temple of God – one that we have to treat with respect and care for. It is a vessel while we are on this earth, and we must make sure that we are gentle with it, and allow it to heal when damaged. Many a times, we are not even aware when there is something wrong with our own body, or we may overlook or ignore the symptoms of diseases that may manifest. At such times, it is advisable that we pay attention to even the smallest of changes in our body, because good health is a privilege we should never take for granted.

The liver is one of the most vital organs in the human body, yet a huge portion of the world’s population lives with liver related problems. It is the organ responsible for storing fats, vitamins and sugar, is involved in metabolic processes and purifies the body from harmful toxins that otherwise, could lead to a bunch of diseases. A strong and well-functioning liver is a must for our overall well-being and good health, and it is of utmost importance that we pay attention to this organ and take proper care.

While there are many reasons that the liver may suffer from a deteriorating functioning, some of the most common causes include obesity, heavy consumption of alcohol, or eating unhealthy food that may contain toxins that the liver is unable to filter out.

A good number of symptoms of toxic-filled liver differ from person to person, but there are some very common symptoms which are seen across all kinds of people regardless of gender, age or ethnicity. These are listed below.

Pain or uneasiness in the upper abdomen
If you consume too much fat, it leads to an enlargement of the liver. Consequently, there is an increased pressure against the ribcage and the upper part of the abdomen. A bloated stomach and too much gas are also signs that your liver is filled with toxins.

Nausea or other stomach related problems
If your liver fails to do its job properly, constantly feeling nauseous and even vomiting could be signs of your organ slowly failing. This is even more common after consuming foods rich in fats. Other regular symptoms that most people go through are frequent dizziness or diarrhoea.

Sensitive skin
If you have a liver problem, your skin and in some cases, eyes will slowly develop a yellowish tint which is indicative of Jaundice. This happens when there is too much Bilirubin content in your blood that your liver cannot filter. Bilirubin is a brownish yellowish pigment found in the bile to aid our food digestion. Skin irritations, rashes and infections are easily developed too.

Constant tiredness
Experiencing unnatural feelings of fatigue easily and constantly even for activities that require little energy could be indicative of liver problems.

Muscle related problems
If you see that your muscles and joints hurt constantly, or you get bruises easily and your legs and feet are swollen, these may be signs of an underperforming liver.

Color changes in bodily waste
Your urine may become a much darker color, while your stool may become lighter or off-white if you have had liver problems for a while.

Your health is so important, make sure to treat your body as God’s temple! Please share this story with your friends to help them maintain a healthy lifestyle.

Why Is Your Liver So Important?
The liver is a very underrated organ that many of us don’t think about. However, having a healthy liver is crucial to living a healthy life! Here are some amazing facts about how your liver works via

It stocks iron: Our liver acts as a warehouse that takes out important vitamins and nutrients from the food we eat and stocks them up. It keeps supplying these nutrients to the body when we need them. It also stores iron and maintains a constant supply of it to the body.

Largest glandular organ: Our liver is the largest glandular organ of the human body, its weight is around 1.36 kilograms and is reddish-brown in color. It’s the second largest organ besides skin.

Multifunctional: Our liver is like a super computer with a very fast processor. It performs over 200 important functions for the body simultaneously. Some of these important functions include supplying glucose to the brain, combating infections, and storing nutrients.

It contains fat: 10% of our liver is made up of fat. If the fat content in the liver goes above 10% its called fatty liver and makes you more likely to get type 2 diabetes. Fatty liver fails at storing glycogen made by glucose from food.

Inventor of blood: The liver creates the blood that circulates in our bodies. The importance of the liver lies in the fact that blood cannot be created artificially by humans. The liver starts producing blood before we are born. Without the liver there would be no blood and no life.

It regenerates: Our liver has the amazing ability to regenerate itself which makes surgeries like liver transplant possible. When people donate half their liver to someone who needs it, the remaining part of the liver regenerates the donated part.

Hormone processor: Our liver is the primary site of hormone breakdown. It breaks down hormones like estrogen and testosterone then converts them into bile which then enters our intestines. Bile is necessary for digestion and emulsifying fats.

Protein creator: Our body needs protein to grow and work properly. The food we eat is not sufficient for fulfilling the protein needs of our body therefore the liver produces its own protein.

Clotting agent: The enzymes and chemicals required to form blood clots to stop bleeding are secreted by the liver. People with an unhealthy liver bleed easily.

Color of stool: Our liver produces bile which is responsible for giving our stool its characteristic brown color. If the color of the stool is not brown it means something is wrong with the liver.

Stock of liveliness: Our liver works like a battery. It stores sugar and whenever our body needs it, the liver provides it. Without this stocking of sugar our blood sugar levels fall drastically and we can become very ill, even comatose.

Medicine converter: Our body cannot use medicines we take, our liver converts medicine into a form accepted by our bodies. Without the liver medicine would be useless.

A cheap and easy blood test could catch cancer early

A simple-to-take test that tells if you have a tumor lurking, and even where it is in your body, is a lot closer to reality—and may cost only $500.

The new test, developed at Johns Hopkins University, looks for signs of eight common types of cancer. It requires only a blood sample and may prove inexpensive enough for doctors to give during a routine physical.

“The idea is this test would make its way into the public and we could set up screening centers,” says Nickolas Papadopoulos, one of the Johns Hopkins researchers behind the test. “That’s why it has to be cheap and noninvasive.”

Although the test isn’t commercially available yet, it will be used to screen 50,000 retirement-age women with no history of cancer as part of a $50 million, five-year study with the Geisinger Health System in Pennsylvania, a spokesperson with the insurer said.

The test, detailed today in the journal Science, could be a major advance for “liquid biopsy” technology, which aims to detect cancer in the blood before a person feels sick or notices a lump.

That’s useful because early-stage cancer that hasn’t spread can often be cured.

Companies have been pouring money into developing liquid biopsies. One startup, Grail Bio, has raised over $1 billion in pursuit of a single blood test for many cancers.

For their test, Hopkins researchers looked at blood from 1,005 people with previously diagnosed ovarian, liver, stomach, pancreatic, esophageal, colorectal, lung, or breast cancer.
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Their test searches for a combination of eight cancer proteins as well as 16 cancer-related genetic mutations.

The test was best at finding ovarian cancer, which it detected up to 98 percent of the time. It correctly identified a third of breast cancer cases and about 70 percent of people with pancreatic cancer, which has a particularly grim outlook.

The chance of a false alarm was low: only seven of 812 apparently healthy people turned up positive on the test.

The researchers also trained a machine-learning algorithm to determine the location of a person’s tumor from the blood clues. The algorithm guessed right 83 percent of the time.

“I think we will eventually get to a point where we can detect cancer before it’s otherwise visible,” says Len Lichtenfeld, deputy chief medical officer of the American Cancer Society.

He cautions that screening tests can sometimes harm rather than help. That can happen if they set off too many false alarms or if doctors end up treating slow-growing cancers that are not likely to do much harm.