10 Best Websites To Download Paid PC Games For Free And Legally in 2018

In desperate times you might find yourself looking for new games. But good games come at a cost. What if I told you that you could download paid PC games for free and legally? Now, you can either take the legal way or the illegal way to download games. But, taking the illegal way is dishonoring all the hard work the game developers did to create a masterpiece out of their imagination. So, how to get free pc games without paying a penny for premium content? There are a number of websites that giveaway paid games for free. Visit these sites often if you want free games. Here, we have prepared a list of the 10 best places to grab premium games for free.

10 Websites to Download Paid PC Games Free And Legally in 2018

1. Origin On the house

Every now and then, Origin gives a premium game free of cost on this website. They are not trials or demos but full versions and expansions. Games such as Mass Effect 2, and Battlefield 3 were hosted on this site, so keep checking it often to download paid PC games for free.

2. IGN Beta Giveaway

IGN Beta Giveaway hosts premium games and lets you download paid PC games for free. If you are a prime member then redeem your beta code to get full access to paid games. At the time of writing this article, they are giving away Destiny 2. Isn’t that cool?

3. Reddit’s freegames subreddit

While Reddit has several subreddits dedicated to free game giveaways, r/freegames is the most noteworthy. Users submit links to full games and giveaways on this subreddit. So, bookmark this page for getting your hands on some freebies.

4. Steamgifts

You will find a huge community of gamers here. You can learn how to become a member, how to sponsor giveaways, or how to use Steamgifts through their FAQ section.

The link to your steam account is needed so that the community members can find your profile in case you won something or if you need to contact people who won a game of your giveaway. It also makes it impossible for people to try to win games that they have already redeemed on Steam. Hence, the user base is protected, and it’s harder for scammers to use the site.

Also Read: 10 Amazing Linux Terminal Based Games That You Must Know

5. SteamCompanion

This website is similar to Steamgifts and works the same way to help you download paid PC games for free. It allows people to host Steam giveaways and the possibility to play and win Steam games. You will need to link your steam account to SteamCompanion. They have a Steam calculator that shows you total worth of your Steam games and time spent on them.

6. Green Man Gaming

Green Man Gaming is an online video game retailer based in the United Kingdom and has a catalog of over 5200 games from more than 450 game publishers. It has won more than 25 awards, latest being the MCV Awards 2017.

Green Man Gaming has a monthly giveaway for paid games. They send you a Steam key, and if you already own the game, it can be given to someone else.

7. GOG

GOG is a digital distribution platform service for video games and films. It is operated by GOG Limited and is a wholly owned subsidiary of CD Projekt. On 26 March 2009, GOG.com signed a deal with Ubisoft which allows them to publish games from Ubisoft’s back catalog.

They give away at least two or three premium games per year and the give away last for around 48 hours.

8. Humble Bundle

It has a great collection of games, and a portion of the price goes towards charity while the rest is split between the game developers. They organize Steam key giveaway and also has a subreddit for requests and giveaways to help you get premium games for free and legally.

9. DLH.net

DLH.Net has been around for more than 20 years now. Under the motto “By gamers, for gamers,” a large community has developed. DLH.Net got its name from “Dirty Little Helper” because it used to post game cheats and tricks. They give away free steam game keys from time to time and also provide free Steam keys for new users who sign up on their website. So, don’t forget to check out this community to get paid PC games for free and legally.

10. Steam

Steam communities have several groups that give away paid PC games free of cost. Free Games GiveAways has more than 13000 users and give away legal games, Steam game keys, Steam gifts, Steam in-game items or Steam game cards for free. Game GiveAway Group is one of the biggest active community who has given away more than 100,000 games.

Apple co-founder Steve Wozniak launches his own online technical university ‘Woz U’

Steve Wozniak announces tech education platform Woz U

Steve WozniaK – the man who co-founded Apple alongside the late Steve Jobs is launching a new portal Woz U and thereby entering the education sector. The portal is designed to promote technology jobs and provide skills to enter the tech industry .The institute will be headquartered in Scottsdale, Arizona.

Woz U is part of the private & for-profit Southern Careers Institute which operates 7 campuses in Texas alongside an online school (so do not expect everything on the portal to be free). Yet, Steve Wozniak plans to partner with other colleges and institutes as they develop and grow. The plans are to expand the initiative to include as much as 30 physical locations globally with courses ranging from software development to IT to mobile app development to cyber security.

“OUR GOAL IS TO EDUCATE AND TRAIN PEOPLE IN EMPLOYABLE DIGITAL SKILLS WITHOUT PUTTING THEM INTO YEARS OF DEBT,” WOZNIAK, WHO ALSO WORKED AS AN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER, SAID IN A STATEMENT. “PEOPLE OFTEN ARE AFRAID TO CHOOSE A TECHNOLOGY-BASED CAREER BECAUSE THEY THINK THEY CAN’T DO IT. I KNOW THEY CAN, AND I WANT TO SHOW THEM HOW.”

Tech companies interested in using the tools & resources provided by Woz U to train and recruit employees also have access. The platform will be available to students K-12 through partnerships with school districts as well. Further in the future, Woz plans to offer one-to-one instructions to students and also create its own accelerator program for prospective startup founders. The objective is to generate and increase interest in STEAM fields/ careers which include Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts & Mathematics. There will also be a focus on Arts possibly as a nod to Wozniak’s role at Apple and Steve Job’s lifelong mission to blend technology with humanities.

“MY ENTIRE LIFE I HAVE WORKED TO BUILD, DEVELOP, AND CREATE A BETTER WORLD THROUGH TECHNOLOGY AND I HAVE ALWAYS RESPECTED EDUCATION. NOW IS THE TIME FOR WOZ U, AND WE ARE ONLY GETTING STARTED.”

No pricing details have been revealed so far, although a mobile app is already availabe with some introductory courses. You can also enroll yourself with Woz U starting today , though do not expect much other than providing your personal information.

Recover Your Lost Data Using MobiKin Doctor for Android

While Apple keeps getting the majority of profit share of the smartphone market, Android smartphones continue to enjoy an unparalleled popularity among the masses due to their user-friendliness and cheaper price. For about half the price of an iPhone, you can grab an Android flagship and enjoy top-notch specifications.

Due to this popularity, Android has become one of most popular operating systems in the world. There are numerous tools available on the web that promise to provide the best phone management but only a few of them turn out to be useful; such is the case of recovery tools that help you get your lost data back. The lost data being talked about here could be due to a faulty upgrade, malware, physical damage, water damage, etc. To help you out, here I’m going to tell you about MobiKin Doctor for Android.

This tool helps you in the time of emergency when you need to get back important documents. Mentioned below are seven types of data that can be recovered by this tool:

  • Contacts
  • Messages
  • Call Logs
  • Photos
  • Videos
  • Audio
  • Documents

Talking about the supported devices, MobiKin lets you recover data from all popular brands like Samsung, Motorola, HTC, LG, Google, Sony, Huawei, Asus, etc. The same is true for Android versions. The tool performs a deep scanning of the device’s internal memory and SD card for performing the recovery. You have the option to get back contacts, call logs, and SMS in HTML format. One should note that root access is needed for performing these actions. In case of files like media and document, root access isn’t required and the files are preserved in original format.

Use Mobikin Doctor for Android for recovery

You can go ahead and download Mobikin Doctor for Android by clicking on the download button given below. The setup isn’t large in size and it just takes a few moments to complete the download. After that, perform the installation like any other regular software and open the program.

MobiKin Doctor For Android

To start the recovery process, you need to first connect your Android device to your computer using the USB cable. Before attempting to connect, make sure that USB debugging is enabled on your phone. Once you’ve done that, connect your device and you should be able to see the device information in the program window. In my case, you can see the device name ASUS_Z012D, model number, serial number, charging level, etc.

mobikin android recovery add phone

Below the device information, you’ll see different types of data listed that you can recover. By default, all types of data is selected. You need to choose as per your requirement and proceed with the recovery process.

mobikin android recovery 1

After selecting the type of data that needs to be recovered, simply press the Next button. It’ll start the scanning process to find out which files have been deleted and which can be recovered. Depending on the amount of stored data on your Android smartphone and the number of deleted files, the time of scanning might vary.

Once the scan is completed, all the deleted files are listed in a new window. As you’re seeing in the picture shown below, the list of file types is in the left pane. Once you click on a file type, data of the same is displayed in the right. You also get to see the preview of the file, which helps in making the right choice during the recovery process.

mobikin android recovery 2

After analyzing the deleted files and choosing the ones that need to be recovered, you need to proceed with the Recover option. It’ll prompt you to specify the recovery location on your computer. After selecting a location, you can complete the process and get back your precious data.

mobikin android recovery 3

Apart from getting back the lost data from the Android internal memory, you can also do the same for SD card. To do so, you need to select the Android SD Card Recovery option from the top tap in the application and proceed with the options.

mobikin android recovery sd card

Overall, if you’re looking for a simple way to recover your deleted data like messages, contacts, photos, etc., from your Android device, you can use Mobikin Doctor for Android. You can visit their website to get the free trial or buy the full version for $49.95.

Scientists suggest new theory behind the mystery of the Bermuda Triangle

The mystery of the Bermuda Triangle may finally have been solved by a group of satellite meteorologists.

For decades, a series of disappearances within the 500,000km square area between Miami, Puerto Rico and Bermuda has remained unexplained and dismissed as coincidental by many.

The triangle is said to be responsible for the loss of at least 1,000 lives along with some 75 planes and hundreds of ships within the past 100 years.

Scientists have now claimed that hexagonal clouds creating “air-bombs” with winds of up to 170mph could be responsible for hundreds of unsolved incidents at sea.

The storms are said to be so powerful that ships and planes can be plunged into the sea in an instant.

Researchers also noted that large-scale clouds were appearing over the western tip of the island of Bermuda, ranging from 20 to 55 miles wide.

Dr Steve Miller, a satellite meteorologist at Colorado State University, told the Science Channel’s What on Earth programme: “You don’t typically see straight edges with clouds.

“Most of the time, clouds are random in their distribution.“

Using radar satellites to measure what was happening underneath the unusual clouds, the research group found sea level winds were also reaching dangerously high speeds, creating waves as high as 45ft as a result.

Metereologist Randy Cerveny said the hexagonal shapes over the ocean “are in essence air bombs”.

“They are formed by what are called microbursts and they’re blasts of air that come down out of the bottom of a cloud and then hit the ocean,” he explained.

These environmental factors “create waves that can sometimes be massive in size as they start to interact with each other.”

Claims of unusual and ‘paranormal’ occurances were made as far back as 1492, whoever, when Christopher Columbus reported seeing strange lights and compass readings.

An average of four planes and 20 ships are said to go missing in the area each year.

Flying cars could hit the skies in 2019 after Volvo’s parent company Geely buys ‘street-legal plane’ startup Terrafugia

Geely announced this week that it has acquired Terrafugia’s operations and assets in their entirety.

Mr Li Shufu, founder and chairman of Geely, said: ‘The team at Terrafugia have been at the forefront of believing in and realizing the vision for a flying car and creating the ultimate mobility solution.

‘This is a tremendously exciting sector and we believe that Terrafugia is ideally positioned to change mobility as we currently understand it and herald the development of a new industry in doing so.

‘Our investment in the company reflects our shared belief in their vision and we are committed to extending our full support to Terrafugia, leveraging the synergies provided by our international operations and track record of innovation, to make the flying car a reality.’

Since it was formed in 2006, Terrafugia has been working on flying cars, and has since developed a number of working prototypes.

The firm aims to deliver its first flying car to the market in 2019, with the world’s first vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) flying car being made available by 2023.

Terrafugia’s Transition was recently granted an exemption by the FAA, allowing it to be classified as a ‘light-sport’ craft.

The aircraft has fold-out wings that weigh roughly 1,300 pounds, and have fixed landing gear.

They seat a maximum of two people, including the pilot.

To operate them, one must have a sport pilot certificate, which requires just 20 hours of training.

The craft reaches a cruise speed of 100 mph, and can achieve a range of 400 miles.

And, it can fly to a maximum altitude of 10,000 feet.

The firm’s newer design, the concept TF-X, has fold-out wings with twin electric motors attached to each end, and is expected to cost £183,000 ($261,000).

THE TF-X: KEY SPECIFICATIONS

The vehicle will have a cruising speed of 200 mph (322 km/h), along with a 500-mile (805 km) flight range.

TF-X will have fold-out wings with twin electric motors attached to each end.

These motors allow the TF-X to move from a vertical to a horizontal position, and will be powered by a 300 hp engine.

The planned four-person TF-X will be semi-autonmous and use computer-controlled so that passengers can simply type in a destination before taking off.

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TF-X vehicles will be capable of automatically avoiding other air traffic, bad weather, and restricted and tower-controlled airspace.

The vehicle will be able to recharge its batteries either from its engine or by plugging in to electric car charging stations.

It is expected to cost £183,000 ($261,000).

These motors allow the TF-X to move from a vertical to a horizontal position, and will be powered by a 300 horsepower engine.

Thrust will be provided by a ducted fan, and the vehicle will have a cruising speed of 200 mph (322 km/h), along with a 500-mile (805 km) flight range.

Chris Jaran, CEO of Terrafugia, said: ‘After working in the helicopter industry for over 30 years, and the aviation industry in China for 17 years, Terrafugia presents a unique opportunity to be at the forefront of a fledgling but enormously exciting industry.’

How To Free Up Disk Space In Windows 10 Using OneDrive Files On-Demand?

The Windows 10 Fall Creators Update arrived with many handy features. And one FCU feature can help you free up disk space on your hard drive using the power of the cloud. It’s known as OneDrive Files On-Demand.

What is OneDrive Files On-Demand?

If you’re running the Fall Creators Update on your Windows 10 PC, you can edit your files – stored in your OneDrive cloud storage – on your computer without downloading them permanently. It can be done using OneDrive Files On-Demand. This facility can help you free up disk space on your computer which you can use to store other things if you want.

The files on your OneDrive which you have marked “online-only” are downloaded when you want to edit them. For instance, when you want to make changes to your Powerpoint presentation. After you have done the editing, the version of the file on OneDrive is replaced with the new one.

How to use OneDrive Files On Demand?

You should set up OneDrive on your device in advance to turn on the feature. To sign-in, open the OneDrive app from the Start Menu and follow the setup.

onedrive setup screen

Next, follow the steps mentioned below to enable Files On-Demand on Windows 10 FCU:

  1. Right-click the OneDrive icon in the Notifications area.
  2. Go to Settings from the drop-down menu.
    turn on onedrive files on-demand windows 10
  3. Under the Settings tab, tick the checkbox that says “Save space and download files as you use them” to turn on the feature and free up disk space on your machine.
    open one drive settings
  4. Click Ok to save and continue.

After you enable the feature, you can see it working in File Explorer > OneDrive folder. A cloud status icon gets attached to the files and folders which are online-only. You can disable the on-demand feature by following the same steps.

To mark a file or folder as online-only, go the OneDrive folder, right-click the file and click “Free Up Space” in the context menu.

onedrive files on-demand free up space

 

The files you’ve created online or on other devices are online-only by default. If you want a file to be available offline on your current device, click “Always keep on this device” option.

onedrive files on-demand status

One thing to keep in mind is that turning on OneDrive Files On-Demand for one Windows 10 PC won’t enable it across all of your devices. These settings are tied individually to your devices.

Also, I won’t recommend you to use the Files on-demand feature if your internet bandwidth is limited as any change you make to the online-only files would cost you valuable data. As an alternative, you can check out Google’s Backup & Sync tool which automatically syncs the folders on your hard drive.

Google Deletes 300 Apps From Play Store That Powered Android DDoS Botnet “WireX”

 

Android Malware
Source: portal gda/flickr

Massive DDoS attacks on websites and company networks are mostly associated with IoT devices. These next-gen techs serve as an easy to source inventory for the hackers when creating gigantic botnets. But in the recent past, a more common breed of devices popularized by the name Android has become an apparently soft target.Google recently deleted around 300 apps from the official Play Store which were used to create what is being called one of the first Android botnets. Known by the name WireX, it included around 120,000 IP addresses across 100 different countries.

The first hints of WireX existing in the wild date back to August 2, 2017, but it drew significant attention after the attacks that happened on August 17.

According to a report published by the researchers, the apps were available in the form of storage managers, audio/video players, etc. The apps were tasked to make the Android device a part of the WireX. The user was unsuspicious about the apps’ activities, as they could work in the background and use system’s resources.

WireX could send to HTTP junk traffic, with a rate up to 20,000 requests per second, to the target website. Although it’s not something big in magnitude, at least, it could force a search engine to run its CPU horses for nothing.

wirex botnet Android DDos
Image: The Estimated growth of the botnet based on the count of unique IPs per hour observed participating in attacks.

The mushrooming botnet was put to an end by seven companies including Google, CloudFlare, Akamai, Flashpoint, Dyn, RiskIQ, and Team Cymru.

“We believe we identified this botnet and took action while it was still in the early stages of growing,” CloudFlare’s Justin Paine told Ars Technica. That’s one of the main reasons the botnet could be taken down without much difficulty and before the hacker could increase the size of the botnet.

You can protect your device from such malicious apps by enabling the Play Protect feature rolled out by Google recently. The researchers found that the feature was showing warnings for the apps they tested.

Android malware play protect

“Notably, it is no longer possible to install this application as Google’s PlayProtect feature now blocks this app from being installed. Google is also removing it from devices that already have it installed,” the researchers write in their report.

What Is A “Certified Android Device”? Here Is How To Check If You Have It

In the ecosystem of devices running Google’s mobile operating system, “Certified Android Device” is the new buzzword introduced by the company.

As an effort to build users’ trust on the manufacturers and their Android devices, the certification assures that the Android devices they’re purchasing are checked for compatibility and doesn’t include anything malicious.

At the center of the certified Android devices program is Play Protect launched earlier this year, which offers automatic app scanning and ‘Find My Device’ features.

Google says they make sure that Android phones and tablets from their certified device partners stick to Android’s security and permissions models. By running hundreds of tests, the company tries to eliminate the possibility of the devices carrying malware or some adulterated version of pre-installed Google apps.

How to check if you have a certified Android device?

To spot a certified Android at a retail store, according to an earlier blog post by Google, the certified devices would carry a Google Play Protect logo on the packaging.

If you already own an Android phone and want to check whether it’s a certified Android device, you can do so within the Google Play app. Go to Google Play > Settings. Scroll down to the bottom of the Settings screen to find the certification details under “Device Certification”.

certified android device how to check

Currently, there are 100+ partners who are making certified Android devices for their markets. The list includes the likes of Samsung, Motorola, HTC, LG, HMD, Xiaomi, etc. You can check the complete list here which includes other not-so-common brands.

The company has also set up a website that flaunts features of the certified Android devices.

ATM In Computer Networks: History And Basic Concepts

ATM, also known as Asynchronous Transfer Mode, is a telecommunication concept, developed for the data link layer, to carry all sorts of different kinds of data such as web traffic, voice, video, etc., while providing QoS (Quality of Service) at the same time.

History of ATM

Let’s have a look at why the concept of ATM was developed at first hand itself. In the 1990s, the mobile data carrier speed along with the internet speed saw a boom in the transfer rate. On the other hand, other internet technologies such as voice call and video calls had also started to come into the play. So, in a nutshell, it was not only the internet world but also the telephony world which were converging into each other. Thus networking QoS factors such as latency, jitter, data rate, real-time data delivery, etc., became more important.

Nonetheless, the underlying protocols were still the same across the most of the internet world including hardware, protocols, and software. On top of that, there was not any solid concept or technology which, on the telecommunication level, can address the then-lately arising issues at the same time. So, the ATM was born.

Basic ATM concepts

Here are some of the fundamental ATM concepts which are used most often:

Cells

The most basic data transfer units are called cells in the ATM technology. While on the data link layer the data transfer units are known as the frames, the data transfer unit for the ATM concepts was named cells. A cell size is 53 bytes, out of which 5 bytes will be header size and rest of the 48 bytes will be the payload. That means around 10% of the packet size is the header size.

For example, if we transfer 53 GB of data using the ATM technology out of 53 GB, 5 GB will be just the header. To process 5 GB per 53 GB, the processing technology has to be scalable and fast enough to do the job. Can you guess how does ATM address it? Otherwise, keep on reading…

Because of the fixed and smaller sizes (53 Bytes), it was easier to make simpler buffer hardware. But, there was a lot of overhead in sending small amounts of data. Moreover, there was segmentation and reassembly cost as well because of the higher share of the packet header and overhead in processing them.

ATM Layers

The whole ATM concept, just like the OSI system, was also divided into different layers. Each layer was assigned some work to do just like each layer of the OSI system did. We will describe the same later in the article.

Class of services

As discussed above, ATM was introduced to address the problem with the real-time data and data latency problem. A set of class of services was also introduced which were based on certain factors such as bit rate (whether constant or variable), timings (how strict the timing sync would be in between the source and destination) to facilitate users with different requirements, etc. The different class of services has also been mentioned ahead in the article.

Asynchronous Data Transfer

ATM uses Asynchronous data transfer while utilizing statistical multiplexing, unlike circuit-switched network where the bandwidth is wasted when there is no data transfer taking place.

Connection Type

However, it uses a connection-oriented network for data transfer mostly for the purpose of Quality of Services. ATM operates by setting up a connection with the destination using the first cell and the rest of the cells follow the first cell for the data delivery. That means, the order of the packets is guaranteed but not the delivery of the packets.

This connection is called virtual circuit. This means that from the source to the destination, a path has to be found first before the data transfer is initiated. Along the path, all the ATM switches (devices) allocate some resources for the connection based on the class of services which has been chosen by the user.

Transmission Medium

As mentioned before, the main purpose of introducing the ATM concept was to make all types of data transmission independent of a medium. That means, it could work on the telephony as well as on the internet working side as well. The transmission medium could be a CAT6 cable, a fiber cable, a WAN and even packaged inside payload of other carrier systems. With such flexibility of data transfer, ATM was supposed to give a quality service in the most of the cases.

Being independent of a medium also brought a lot of problems with the ATM technology, which were addressed at the convergence layer.

Some of the other interesting facts that arise out of the situations mentioned above are —

  • ATM can also work on CBR (Constant Bit Rate) as well as VBR (Variable bitrate) because it has flexible data transmission efficiency.

Quality of Service and Service categories in ATM:

Quality of Service in ATM technology is handled in different ways based on a certain number of criteria. Based upon it, different service categories have been introduced such as Available Bit rate, Unspecified Bit Rate, Constant Bit Rate, Variable Bit Rate, etc.

ATM Layers

Just like the OSI model, ATM protocol stack has also been divided into three layers with different assigned functionalities:

  • ATM Adaptation Layer (AAL)
    • Convergence Sublayer (CS) and,
    • Segmentation & Reassembly Sublayer (SAR)
  • ATM Layer and,
  • Physical Layer
    • Transmission Convergence Sublayer (TS) and,
    • Physical Medium Sublayer

ATM Adaptation Layer (AAL)

The main function of the adaptation layer is mapping apps to the ATM cells. If you are well aware of the different layer of the OSI system, then you can relate adaptation layer with the application layer of the OSI model.

Besides, the Adaptation layer is also responsible for segmentation of the data packets and reassembling them at the destination host.

Convergence sublayer

We have already seen that the ATM concept was introduced to handle different data types along with variable transmission rate. It is the convergence layer which is responsible for these features.

In easier terms, convergence layer is the layer on which different types of traffic such as voice, video, data, etc., converge.

Convergence layer offers different kinds of services to different applications such as voice, video, browsing, etc. Since different applications need different kinds of data transmission rate, convergence sublayer makes sure that these applications get what they need. A few examples of services offered by the convergence sublayer are here –

CBR (Constant Bit Rate)

CBR provides a guaranteed bandwidth and it is also suitable for real-time traffic. In the CBR mode, the user declares the required rate at the beginning of the connection set up. So, accordingly, the resources are set for the source at different hops or stations. Besides the declared required rate, the user is also guaranteed delay and delay variations.

ABR (Available Bit Rate)

Suitable for bursty traffic and getting feedback about the congestion. In ABR mode, the source relies very much on the network feedback. If bandwidth is available, then more data can be transferred. It helps in achieving maximum throughput with minimum loss.

UBR (Unspecified Bit Rate)

UBR is a cheaper and suitable solution for bursty traffic. In UBR transfer mode, the user does not specify the network about the kind of data and bitrate it is going to utilize.

Thus, the source sends the data packets whenever it wants. However, there are also certain disadvantages to it such as there is no feedback about the sent data packets. As a result, there is no guarantee that the packet will reach its destination. Also, if there is congestion in the network, then cells might be dropped as well.

VBR (Variable Bit Rate)

In the VBR mode, the user needs to declare the maximum and the average bit rate at the beginning. Also, VBR works in the real time as well as non-real time basis.

For example, VBR can be used for the real-time services such as video conferencing. On the other hand, it can also be used for the non-real time services as stored video buffering.

AAL Types & Services offered in details:

Here is a table of the services offered under different AAL types:

AAL Type,Traffic Characteristics
AAL 1,”Connection Oriented, Constant Bit Rate (Eg. Voice)”
AAL 2,”Connection Oriented, Variable Bit Rate (Eg. Packet Based Video)”
AAL 3 / AAL 4,”Connection Oriented, Variable Bit Rate (Eg. File Transfer), Connectionless Variable Bit Rate (LAN Data transfer applications such as frame relay)”
AAL 5,For Bursty Data with error control at the higher layer protocols

Segmentation and Reassembly Sublayer (SAR)

As the name suggests, SAR layer is responsible for segmenting higher layer data into 48 Bytes cells. At the receiving end, the same layer reassembles the data.

When ATM was created, it was envisioned that this technology will be scalable and would support very high speed. To achieve it, the cell size was kept of around 48 Bytes so that segmentation and reassembly could be done faster. Moreover, it also employes ASIC (Application Specific Integrated Circuit) chip in the ATM switch to achieve this.

ATM Layer

  • ATM layer is akin to the network layer of the OSI layer although it also has the data link properties.
  • To set up a connection, the ATM layer uses Globally Unique Address. ATM does not IP system.
  • Path and circuit identifiers are used once a connection has been established.

Why did ATM technology not survive?

You have had enough about ATM technology and the question “Why did ATM technology not survive then even if it was so efficient and advanced?” must have crossed your mind till now.

Even though the ATM addressed a lot of issues and offered a la carte solution to the users need, there were a lot of other things that could not let ATM technology compete for a longer time. Here are some of the reasons:

The speed of the device operation:

Much of the ATM devices operated at a different speed than what we see around. For example, OC3 operated at around 155 Mbps and OC12 operated at 622 Mbps.

Costly & complex Hardware

Because both the telephony and the internet industries were involved, the standardization of this technology took too long. With the time, it also grew too complex, resulting in the sophisticated hardware which was too costly compared to normal computer networks devices around. For example, ATM switches were more expensive as compared to Ethernet switches which work at layer 2.

Non-IP based addressing system

Making the situation worse, most of the networking software and hardware available in the market were based on the IP-based networks but not on the ATM-based networks. So, in the market, not much software was available for ATM. Also, no one wanted to move to ATM by investing a lot of money in buying new hardware.

Delay

Last but not the least, there was too much delay involved in the standardization of the protocols. Also, many leading computer networks companies tried to come up with their proprietaries to influence the market.

Bringing all the companies and working groups (including research and study groups) from telephony as well the internet world delayed the whole standardization process.

Gradually with the time, because of the major issues mentioned above and other minor issues, ATM phased out of the market.

15 Smart Ways To Re-Purpose Your Old Android Smartphone And Give It A New Life

As modern technology keeps evolving, gadgets and services keep overwhelming us with new and exciting features. On an average, people upgrade their smartphone once every two years. So, what to do with the old phone when you get a shiny new one?

Selling is an option, but people often go for cheaper or mid-range devices rather than buying a used one at a lower price. Don’t just throw away your old Android phone. There are so many uses for your spare Android device that you might not be aware of. Just find the right way to tap into their potential and give them a new life. Here are some ways which might help you to put your old Android phone to good use.

15 ways to re-purpose your old Android smartphone

1. Universal Remote Controller

One of the best ways to use an old Smartphone is to serve it as a smart remote for your home or office. Many handsets have an infrared “blaster,” which will let it connect to the TVs, air conditioners, and other devices that use a remote control. Smartphones with IR blaster can communicate with any devices that receive commands via IR beams. The iPhone does not have an IR blaster.

If your phone has an IR blaster, then set up an app like Sure (free) or AnyMote-Smart Remote (free) that will allow you to issue the IR commands to your electronic device. However, if the phone does not have an IR blaster, you can either add it up to the phone with a third-party accessory which will cost you a little amount or you could even DIY it for cheap.

2. Computer Mouse

Remote-Mouse-iPhone-old-phoneWhen it comes to office or home usage, you can turn your old phone into a mouse and keyboard controller for your PC. All that needed is an app like PC Remote (free) or Unified Remote (free/paid) that you need to install on your Android phone and its companion Mac/Windows/Linux server program.

With such apps installed, you gain the flexibility to control your PC from any corner of a room via Wifi or Bluetooth. Moreover, some apps let you control your PC from anywhere in the world over the internet. You can use your outdated Android device for such remote administration applications.

3. Use Old Phone As Alarm clock

One of the cool uses of your old Android smartphone might be a bedside clock. A smartphone is capable of producing an excellent alarm sound to wake you up in the morning.

There are all sorts of alarm clock apps that do everything from playing specific radio station to recording your sleep patterns. Get yourself an excellent clock app from the Google Play Store, such as Timely (free) or Alarm Clock Xtreme (free). Also, you can buy yourself a cheap smartphone dock, and you’ve got a customizable alarm clock to set beside your bed.

4. Digital Photo Frame

You can quickly turn your old Android phone to a digital photo frame that can display photos or slideshows. A digital photo frame is just an electronic display where images are stored. All you need is a phone dock and a photo streaming app.

Various apps and tools are available for this purpose, just install an app like Google Photos (free) or Photo Slides (Photo Frame)” (free) and convert your device into a powerful photo frame. However, if you want something more suited for photo slideshows to display in the background while you’re doing something else around the house, then there’s the Dayframe (free) app for Android.

5. Use Old phone a Desk calendar

If you like a simple addition to your living room or your office desk, then turn your old Smartphone into a desk calendar.

Google Calendar app can get the job done. Sync your calendar events from your tablet or existing phone and have them show on your new modified desk calendar. Another calendar app, such as Cal Calendar (free) is also ideally suited for this purpose.

6. As a mounted GPS for your car

Take your old Android handset and convert it into a permanent in-car GPS. All you need is to grab a car phone mount, a car charger, and fix your phone in place permanently.

Load up your phone with navigational apps like Google Maps (free), Waze (free) or any other preferable offline apps such as CoPilot GPS (free) or Sygic GPS Navigation & Maps (free). Your in-car GPS will be ready with your desired downloaded maps, and you are all set to go.

7. Monitoring through live video feed

You can consider turning your old device into a security camera to keep an eye on your home, office, or anywhere you desire. Just install a security camera app like IP webcam (free) from the Google Play Store. The IP webcam can broadcast both locally and over a service called ‘Ivideon’ so that you can view your stream live from anywhere.

You can also use the camera to monitor a baby, kitty-cam or use it in on your front door.

8. As an e-reader

One of the good things about Android is all of the choices for reading apps. If you want to give your old Smartphone a lightweight job while it sees out its retirement, you can turn it into a dedicated e-reader.

An e-book reader is an ideal companion for the modern book lovers. All you need to do is load up your device with only the apps you need for reading, such as Google Play Books (free), Amazon Kindle (free) or any other app that you prefer. Disable notification from all the other apps and use other battery saving tips to get maximum screen-on time and enjoy!

 

9. Media Centre

Your old Android device, once connected to your home network and loaded up with your favorite music and movies, can be considered as a media center to stream content around your home. Just load up your collection on the device and install any of the standard apps, such as Kodi (free), MX Player (free) or VLC (free). Also, you can fill it with apps like Netflix and Hulu, and you are good to go.

You can also connect your phone to the TV using an MHL or HDMI cable so that it can be left tethered to your TV.

10. Kid-Friendly learning tool

An excellent alternative use for an old Android device is turning it into a kid-friendly learning device and dedicating the phone primarily to your child’s education. Just add a restricted user profile to your Android device, fill it up with fun and educational apps and give it to your kid to unlock his potentials and get in pace with this fast-moving world.

If your device has Android 7.0 or higher, you can try “Google Family Link” program to get more robust control over the phone, including abilities to set screen-time limits and receive weekly activity reports.

 Additional Uses of your old smartphone:

  • Your device can be used as a Wifi repeater by using apps like Netshare.
  • If you are a developer, you can use your spare Android for testing purposes.
  • Use your device as a fitness tracker by loading it with fitness tracking apps.
  • You can turn it into an online radio for your bedside table with apps like TuneIn Radio.
  • If you use your old Android as a car navigation device, you can also use it as a dashcam by installing an app like Autoboy Dash Cam.