Know Your Blood Group, Your Compatibility And That Says A Lot About Your Health

Blood is made up of red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets in a liquid called plasma. Your blood group is identified by antibodies and antigens in the blood.

Antibodies are proteins found in plasma. They’re part of your body’s natural defences. They recognise foreign substances, such as germs, and alert your immune system, which destroys them.

Antigens are protein molecules found on the surface of red blood cells.

The ABO system

There are four main blood groups defined by the ABO system:

  • blood group A – has A antigens on the red blood cells with anti-B antibodies in the plasma
  • blood group B – has B antigens with anti-A antibodies in the plasma
  • blood group O – has no antigens, but both anti-A and anti-B antibodies in the plasma
  • blood group AB – has both A and B antigens, but no antibodies

Blood group O is the most common blood group. Almost half of the world’s population (48%) has blood group O.

Receiving blood from the wrong ABO group can be life threatening. For example, if someone with group B blood is given group A blood, their anti-A antibodies will attack the group A cells.

This is why group A blood must never be given to someone who has group B blood and vice versa.

As group O red blood cells don’t have any A or B antigens, it can safely be given to any other group.

The NHS Blood and Transplant (NHSBT) website has more information about the different blood groups.

The Rh system

Red blood cells sometimes have another antigen, a protein known as the RhD antigen. If this is present, your blood group is RhD positive. If it’s absent, your blood group is RhD negative.

This means you can be one of eight blood groups:

  • A RhD positive (A+)
  • A RhD negative (A-)
  • B RhD positive (B+)
  • B RhD negative (B-)
  • O RhD positive (O+)
  • O RhD negative (O-)
  • AB RhD positive (AB+)
  • AB RhD negative (AB-)

 

In most cases, O RhD negative blood (O-) can safely be given to anyone. It’s often used in medical emergencies when the blood type isn’t immediately known.

It’s safe for most recipients because it doesn’t have any A, B or RhD antigens on the surface of the cells, and is compatible with every other ABO and RhD blood group

Microsoft Is Giving Away Millions Of E-Books For Free, Download Them Right Now

It’s July again and Microsft’s Director of Sales Excellence, Erice Ligman, is back with the annual free e-book giveaway. Just like the last year, this year’s giveaway also includes tons of free Microsoft e-books.

 

Ligman says it has been several years since he started giving e-books for free and the response has been quite good. This year’s giveaway includes more e-books, and he has also streamlined the list to make it easier for the users to find relevant ones and their download links.

There are approximately 300 titles which are meant for various Microsoft products and services including:

  • E-Books For Windows 10, Windows Server
  • E-Books For PowerShell
  • E-Books For Azure
  • E-Books For Cloud
  • E-Books For Microsoft Office 2013, 2016, and 365
  • E-Books For Power BI
  • E-Books For Microsoft SharePoint
  • E-Books For SQL Server
  • E-Books For Microsoft System Center

How to download the free Microsoft e-books?

There are two ways to download the free e-books available as a part of the giveaway. They can be downloaded individually in PDF, EPUB, and MOBI formats. So, scroll through the list and download the ones you like in the format that suits you best.

If you want to download all of them at once, there is no direct option given on the website. “Since the eBooks and resources themselves have been put together and are distributed by some incredible authors and publishers, ultimately, they have the rights to update, distribute, and manage their IP as they see fit,” Ligman says.

As a workaround, Ligman has made available at list of the e-books he has shared as a part of the giveaway. It’s in the form of a text file which you can find after scrolling down, under the subheading HOW TO DOWNLOAD ALL E-BOOKS. Right-click the icon and click “Save Target As” to get the text file.

You can use a download manager or a browser extension to download all the files at once. Also, there is a Windows PowerShell script which allows you to download all the e-books at once.

Top 15 Best Free Data Recovery Software Of 2017

We lose our important data from hard disk by accidentally pressing the Delete key. Sometimes, a software bug or virus can also corrupt your hard disk. In that case, you need the best data recovery software or a recovery tool to recover your important data back at any cost.At this point of time, a data recovery software comes in handy. We have compiled a list of best free data recovery software considering factors such as whether the software can recover RAW, Unallocated, Corrupt or Formatted Hard Disk; its ability to recover from different file systems such as FAT, FAT32, HFS, NTFS etc.; the array of devices supported; time taken for file recovery and user friendliness to name a few.

 

At this point of time, a data recovery software comes in handy. To answer your query, we have compiled a list of best free data recovery software considering factors such as whether the software can recover RAW, Unallocated, Corrupt or Formatted Hard Disk; its ability to recover from different file systems such as FAT, FAT32, HFS, NTFS etc.; the array of devices supported; time taken for file recovery and user friendliness to name a few. Let’s take a look at some of the best data recovery software you can use to recover lost data:

15 Best Data Recovery Software Of 2017 For Free:

1. Recuva:

Recuva-Best Free Data Recovery Tools

The fact that Recuva is on the top of the best data recovery software list, may not come as a surprise to the most of you. This data recovery tool has the ability to restore files from hard drives, DVD or CDs, memory cards, and external drives.

Some of the features that bring Recuva on top of the list of Best recovery software are:

  • Superior file recovery
  • Advanced deep scan mode
  • Secure overwrite feature that uses industry & military standard deletion techniques and,
  • Ability to recover files from damaged or newly formatted files
  • Easy User interface

Supported Platforms: Recuva data recovery software for PC can be used on Windows 10, 8, 8.1, 7, Vista, XP, and older versions of Windows.

2. TestDisk:

TestDisk-Best Free Data Recovery Tools

A list of best data recovery software can hardly be termed as being complete without a mention of TestDisk recovery software. It’s an open source software that was created with an aim to get back lost partitions and fix non-booting disks. Packed with features and a file recovery system that can easily overshadow that of any other data recovery software, TestDisk has a lot to offer for both novices and experts. Here are some of the TestDisk’s features:

  • Allows users to recover/rebuild the boot sector
  • Fix or recover deleted partition table besides being able to reliably undelete files from FAT, exFAT, NTFS and ext2 file systems.
  • Available on all major platforms such as Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X etc and is in fact quite popular as it can be found on various Linux Live CD’s.

Being a command line tool, TestDisk hard drive recovery tool may not be suitable for some users for data recovery.

Supported Platforms: TestDisk can run on Windows 10, 8, 8.1, 7, Vista, XP, and older versions of Windows, Linux, BSD, macOS, and DOS.

3. Stellar Data RecoveryStellar-phoenix-windows-Data-Recovery

Living up to its name, Stellar Data Recovery performs a stellar job in recovering your data from your Windows PC and Mac. If you are regretting your decision of deleting recent files, Stellar Data Recovery tool is here to help you in an effective way.

  • Risk-free program recovers data from different types of storage devices like memory cards, smartphones, USB drives, hard disks etc.
  • Using Stellar Data Recovery program is simple. Just download it, start the scan, and you are able to recover from the past data disasters.

4. Undelete 360:

Undelete360-Best Free Data Recovery Tools

With the looks of a typical Office application, the Undelete 360 is built on a fast yet efficient algorithm which enables the user to undelete files. Here are some of the features of Undelete 360:

  • Works on a variety of devices such as Digital cameras, memory cards, smartphones, computer hard drives, USBs etc.
  • It includes a data-wiping tool, a Hex Viewer along with the ability to preview files before recovery.
  • Does a great job in recovering recently deleted files as compared to other free data recovery software
  • Also able to recover files of a wide variety of types such as DOC, HTML, AVI, MP3, JPEG, JPG, PNG, GIF, etc.

However, scanning speed needs major improvement and this tool also lags out its competition in terms of recovering data.

Supported Platforms: Undelete 360 can run on Windows 8, 8.1, 7, Vista, XP, and older versions of Windows.

5. PhotoRec:

PhotoRec-Best Free Data Recovery Tools

Definitely one of the best data recovery software out there, PhotoRec is widely acclaimed for its powerful file recovery over a wide variety of devices ranging from digital cameras to hard disks. It’s specially created to recover data like pictures, videos, documents, etc., from hard disks, CD-ROMs. Here are some of the features of PhotoRec recovery tool:

  • Compatible with almost all major platforms such as Microsoft Windows, Linux, Mac OS X etc.
  • Comes packed with the ability to recover more than 440 different file formats.
  • Features such as the ‘unformat function’ and the ability to add your own custom file types do come in handy.

Although I wouldn’t advise this free data recovery software to beginners as it is completely devoid of a GUI and uses a command line interface which may intimidate some users.

Supported Platforms: PhotoRec recovery program can run on Windows 10, 8, 8.1, 7, Vista, XP, & older versions of Windows, Linux, BSD, DOS, macOS.

6. Pandora Recovery:

PandoraRecovery-Best Free Data Recovery Tools

Pandora recovery is one of the most reliable and effective best free data recovery software out there. Pandora recovery tool has a lot to offer to its users. Here are some of the features of this tool:

  • Ability to recover deleted files from NTFS and FAT-formatted volumes
  • Preview deleted files of certain types (image and text files) without performing recovery
  • With surface scan (which allows you to recover data from drives that have been formatted) and the ability to recover archived, hidden, encrypted and compressed files, it packs quite a punch.
  • Its interface is very easy to get a hang of and provides an explorer-like view along with color coded and recovery percentage indicators.

However, its file detection system is not that reliable and needs to be improved further. This excellent data recovery software could be made portable as well so that it doesn’t consume any space on the hard disk and thereby not consume space that a file which we wish to recover once consumed.

Supported Platforms: Pandora data recovery can run on Windows 8, 8.1, 7, Vista, XP, and older versions of Windows.

7. MiniTool Partition Recovery:

Standard undelete programs like Recuva, Pandora etc. are perfect for recovering a few deleted files, but what if when you have lost an entire partition? Then you will probably need a specialist application like MiniTool Partition Recovery. Here are some of the great features of this recovery tool specialized in partition recovery:

  • An easy wizard-based interface
  • Specialized in data recovery on an entire partition
  • Point MiniTool Partition Recovery tool at the problematic drive and it will scan for the missing partition
  • Generates a recovery report which will let you know what the program has found to help you in data recovery
  • Can’t use data recovery on a bootable disc here.

Supported Platforms: MiniTool Partition Recovery software can run on Windows 10, 8, 8.1, 7, Vista, XP, and older versions of Windows.

8. Wise Data Recovery:

Wise data recovery tool is one of the fastest undelete tools among the best data recovery software. Besides being faster, it also comes with some nice features. Here is a list of its features:

  • Easy and an intuitive interface
  • Can recover deleted files from local drives, USB drives, cameras, memory cards, removable media devices etc.
  • Faster search filter by selecting inbuilt file extension groups using the file’s type.
  • Compatible from Windows XP to Windows 8.
Wise data recovery tool is quick at performing file scans during recovery process but the availability of a deep scan mode would have been better. There’s also a Wise portable data recovery software version available, so you don’t need to install it.
 
Supported Platforms: Wise data recovery software can run on Windows 10, 8, 8.1, 7, Vista, XP, and older versions of Windows.

9. Puran file Recovery:

Puran file recovery works in 3 main recovery modes. These recovery modes are:

  • Default Quick Scan (It simply reads the FAT or NTFS file system for deleted files from the recycle bin etc.)
  • Deep Scan (includes scanning all available free space) and,
  • Full Scan (checks all space on the device for the best chance of recovery)
  • Works from Windows XP to Windows 8

Using the “Find lost files” option turns Puran File Recovery into a tool to recover all files from a lost or damaged partition. Something else you can do is edit the custom scan list which stores file signatures for more accurate recovery of badly damaged data.

Supported Platforms: Puran file recovery software can run on Windows 10, 8, 8.1, 7, Vista, XP, and older versions of Windows.

10. PC Inspector File recovery

PC Inspector File Recovery works well on both FAT and NTFS drives even if the boot sector has been erased or damaged. Here are some of the features of this recovery tool.

  • Simple search dialog can help locate files by name.
  • Recovered files can be restored to a local hard disk or network drives.
  • Can recover image and video of several types of files in different formats such as ARJ, AVI, BMP, DOC, DXF, XLS, EXE, GIF, HLP, HTML, JPG, LZH, MID, MOV, MP3, PDF, PNG, RTF, TAR, TIF, WAV and ZIP.
  • Can scan just specific areas of the disc with the Cluster scanner
  • Works perfectly from Windows XP to Windows 7

However, the interface is a little confusing mess of tabs. So, be careful with this tool. Also, note that if your hard disk is has faced some mechanical damage, you need to look for some specialist.

Supported Platforms: PC Inspector file recovery software can run on Windows 10, 8, 8.1, 7, Vista, XP, and older versions of Windows.

After top 10, here are 5 more bonus file recovery software:

11. Restoration

Restoration data recovery program takes the 10th position in the list of top 15 best data recovery tools. It is no different and is similar to the other free undelete apps on this list. Even if it is in the tenth position, here are a few things that we liked about this data recovery tool:

  • Very simple and easy to use
  • No confusing and no cryptic buttons or any complicated file recovery procedures
  • It can recover data and files from hard drives, memory cards, USB drives, and other external drives as well.
  • Does not need to be installed and can run data recovery from a USB drive.

Supported Platforms: Restoration runs on Windows Vista, XP, 2000, NT, ME, 98, and 95 and also, successfully tested Windows 7 and Windows 10. Sometimes, runs into a problem with Windows 8

12. DMDE

It is one of the most feature-rich data recovery software I have ever seen. But the unending list of various options actually complicates the recovery process.

  • It is portable.
  • Supports deep scan. It literally squeezed the flash drive for any sort of deleted data.
  • Can save logs to avoid rescan at the later stage.
  • Detailed information about the device from which data is to be recovered.
  • Doesn’t display original folder names but displays original file names.
  • File search option available.
  • Multiple filters available.
  • Copy sector option to create disk image files.
  • Tool to construct RAID.

13. Glary Undelete

The file recovery software provides a clean yet convenient interface for first-time users. It doesn’t have much visual appeal but it can be a good solution to get back your deleted files.

  • Quick file scan with Folder and File Types view options.
  • Multiple filter options include date, time, file type, file size, etc.
  • Preview option available.
  • Multiple language options.
  • Supports various Windows versions including Windows 10.
  • Includes search bar.
  • Shows recovery status – Good, Poor, Overwritten, etc – in the scan result
  • Does not show original folder names.
  • Tries to install companion software from the vendor.

14. Disk Drill

Seriously, if you’re looking for a data recovery software that also looks good then Disk Drill is your shot. But you will have to pay for the visuals by downloading a 15 MB setup file.

  • Displays literally all the storage present on your machine, even the unallocated space.
  • Displays scanned data in All files, Pictures, Video, Documents, Archives options.
  • Allows filtering of scanned files by files and date.
  • Includes search bar.
  • Can save the recovery session for later use.
  • Can recover data in the form of a disk image (ISO).
  • Preview option available.
  • Deep scan mode available.
  • Retains original folder names.
  • Restart required after installation.
  • Scan time more than average.
  • Only 500 MB space can be recovered in the free version. It is the biggest disadvantage.

15. SoftPerfect File Recovery

This data recovery software is ideal for those users who don’t want the hassles of installing a software. It’s tiny solution which offers a minimalistic interface.

  • Set up size is just 0.5MB.
  • Easy to use.
  • Includes search bar.
  • Can’t recover corrupted or overwritten files.
  • Preview not available.
  • Multiple languages available.
  • Doesn’t show the health of the files to be recovered.
  • Doesn’t allow restoration of recovered files on the same disk. Better run it from a flash drive.

Editor’s Recommendation for best data recovery tool: 

I would personally recommend Piriform’s Recuva data recovery program to all our readers, hands down. With superior file recovery, an advanced deep scan mode, a secure overwrite feature that uses industry & military standard deletion techniques and the ability to recover files from damaged or newly formatted files, Recuva is undeniably one of the best free data recovery tools out there. Its portability (the ability to run without installation) is one feature that sets it apart from others.

The User Interface of this free tool wouldn’t let you down either with a file-recovery wizard and an application manual mode available to your disposal which provides color coding (indicating the probability of the recovery of a file) along with the ability to preview files before undeleting them. Recuva’s data recovery solution is definitely a notch above all others and undoubtedly the most complete and reliable free data recovery software available today.

How To Repair Corrupted Pen Drive or SD Card In Simple Steps?

For SD card, you will have to insert it into the slot provided in your computer or by using a card reader. Use adapter if you have a microSD card. It will not work if you connect some device having the SD card like a smartphone or a camera. Check out these different methods.

Different methods to repair corrupted pen drive or SD card:

Change the drive letter

Sometimes your computer is unable to assign drive letters (like C, D, E) to your storage media. Due to this reason, the files on it can’t be accessed. To resolve this issue, you can assign the drive letter to your device.

How to change drive letter in windows

Here are the simple steps to fix the corrupted pen drive or memory card by assigning a correct drive letter:

  1. Connect your storage media to your computer.
  2. Right Click on My Computer/ This PC. Click Manage in the drop down menu.
  3. Click Disk Management in the left side and wait for a few seconds so that Windows can load the Virtual disk service.
  4. Right Click on your storage media and click Change Drive Letter and Paths.
  5. Click the drive letter (it will turn blue) and click Change.
  6. Select the drive letter from the drop-down list. Click Ok.

Try to use it on another PC

Maybe the issue is specifically on your PC. Try connecting your SD card or pen drive to another computer. Hopefully, it may work and you’ll be able to backup your data from it.

Reinstall the drivers

There are times when the drivers that run your pen drive get corrupted and our PC will not be able to detect your storage media. You can reinstall drivers by these simple steps:

uninstall pen drive

  1. Right click My Computer/ This PC. Click Manage.
  2. Click Device Manager on the left side.
  3. Double-Click Disk Drives in the list. Right Click on the name of your pen drive.
  4. Click Uninstall. Click Ok.
  5. Disconnect your storage media and restart your PC.
  6. Connect your pen drive again. Your PC will detect it.

Repair corrupted SD card or Pen Drive using Windows Explorer

This is the most commonly used procedure to repair a connected storage media to your computer.

  1. Open My Computer or This PC.
  2. Select the corrupted drive and Right Click.
  3. Click Format in the drop down menu.
  4. Click Restore Device Defaults in the popup window.
  5. Click Start to begin the format process. You can uncheck the Quick format option if you want the computer to deep scan the drive/card for errors but this will take time. So, uncheck it only if you fail in the first attempt.
  6. Click Ok in the next dialog box which will warn you that the data will be lost. The format process will complete in a few moments, and you will have your error free SD card or pen drive.

Repair corrupted Pen Drive or SD card using CMD

This process involves Windows command prompt which is commonly known as CMD. In this, you have to enter some CMD commands and Windows will forcefully format your corrupted pen drive/SD card.

repair corrupt pen drive using diskpart

  1. Connect the corrupted pen drive or SD card to your computer.
  2. Hover your mouse on the Start button and Right Click.
  3. Click Command Prompt (Admin). A CMD window will open.
  4. Type diskpart and press Enter.
  5. Type list disk and press Enter. A list of all the storage devices connected to your computer will be displayed.
  6. Type select disk <the number of your disk> and press Enter. (Example: select disk 1). Important: Make sure you enter the number correctly. Otherwise, you may format your internal hard drive. You can type list disk again to check whether you are going correctly. There will be a star (asterisk symbol) before the name of the selected disk.
  7. Type clean and press Enter.
  8. Type create partition primary and hit Enter.
  9. Type active.
  10. Type select partition 1.
  11. Type format fs=fat32 and press Enter. The format process will finish in a few minutes. You can write ntfs instead of fat32 if you want to carry files larger than 4 gigabytes. Don’t close the CMD

Recover your lost data

You can use Sandisk Rescue Pro to recover your data in case you have deleted your files or formatted your SD card/Pen Drive by mistake. The SD card needs to be in working condition to perform the recovery process. Other notable data recovery software is Recuva by Piriform

World’s Most Advanced Quantum Computer Created By A Team Of US And Russian Scientists

Most of you would be knowing about the basic working of the quantum computers, which allows the data to operate on quantum bits or qubits. As the number of qubits increases, the power of a quantum computer grows in an exponential manner.

Now, a team of Russian and American researchers at Harvard have created the world’s first 51 qubit quantum computer. In theory, a quantum machine with 50 working qubits is more powerful than the world’s most powerful computer.

Mikhail Lunkin, a Harvard professor and co-founder of Russian Quantum Center, said that the new machine has allowed his group to become the leader in the ongoing race to replace traditional Silicon-based chips, reported Sputnik News.

In the recent past, many tech giants and scientists have been working on creating an adiabatic (closer to digital approach) machine, which is one of the two approaches to create quantum systems–the other one is classical (closer to analog approach). Before this, the team of John Martinis, from Google, was creating a 22 qubit machine using the superconducting circuits.

On the other hand, Lukin’s team has used an exotic “cold atom” technology, which needs to keep a set of atoms inside special laser cells and cooling them at very low temperature.

Notably, Lupin’s team has already solved some physics problems that are too complicated to be solved by conventional computers. In future, the team plans to continue experimenting. A paper with the results of the work on 51 qubit quantum computer has been accepted for publication in a peer-reviewed journal.

Did you find this development in the field of quantum computing interesting? Don’t forget to share your views.

Source: Sputnik News, Ria.ru

These Are The 10 Best Jobs In Tech Field To Apply For In 2016.

 

If you are bored from your current tech job and looking to switch your job, remember this thing — some tech job are better than others. All you need is correct data at the right time to make the perfect decision.

The job hunting website Glassdoor is here to help you with its 2016 list of the best jobs. Civil engineer, mechanical engineers, and lawyers all have disappeared from this list. While the website has prepared a list of the top 25 jobs for 2016, out of those, we have picked the top 10 jobs in technology that you need to look for this year.

The list mentions the average salary, number of job openings and scores out of five. Let’s take a look:
10 best tech jobs you should apply for in 2016:
1. Data Scientist

Also called the ‘sexiest job of the 21st century’, the data scientist job profile is something that needs a wide range of skills including mathematical, statistical, predictive modeling, and business strategy skills. Their job includes collecting and analyzing ‘big data’ to present the hidden business insights.

    Number of Job Openings: 1,736
    Median Base Salary: $116,840
    Career Opportunities Rating: 4.1

2. Solutions Architect

Solutions architect is a person who is responsible for converting the requirements into the architecture of that solution and describing it using a set of design architecture standards.

    Number of Job Openings: 2,906
    Median Base Salary: $119,500
    Career Opportunities Rating: 3.5

3. Mobile Developer

The software requirements are converted into programmable code and programs by a mobile developer. Usually, a mobile developer is skilled in one specific field like mobile development, graphics software, business software etc.

    Number of Job Openings: 2,251
    Median Base Salary: $90,000
    Career Opportunities Rating: 3.8

4. Product Manager

A product manager finds an intersection between technology, business, and user experience to discover a valuable and feasible product. This person oversees the projects and their progress.

    Number of Job Openings: 6,607
    Median Base Salary: $106,680
    Career Opportunities Rating: 3.3

5. Software Engineer

A software engineer is responsible for the complete life-cycle of a new or modified version of a software. This person works on everything — research, design, training, application, and support.

    Number of Job Openings: 49,270
    Median Base Salary: $95,000
    Career Opportunities Rating: 3.3

6. Analytics Manager

An analytics manager plays a key role in designing the future strategy of a company. This person generates information based on previous records and performance to arrive at a comprehensive result.

    Number of Job Openings: 982
    Median Base Salary: $105,000
    Career Opportunities Rating: 3.7

7. Software Development Manager

A software manager is often called the ‘man in the middle’. This person deals with software development projects and takes care of various developments, customers, management, and sales aspects.

    Number of Job Openings: 1,199
    Median Base Salary: $135,000
    Career Opportunities Rating: 3.4

8. QA [Quality Assurance] Manager

A QA manager ensures that the end product fulfills the relevant criteria, establishes procedures and certain quality standards.

    Number of Job Openings: 3,749
    Median Base Salary: $85,000
    Career Opportunities Rating: 3.4

9. UX [User Experience] Designer

A UX designer is responsible for the looks and feel of a product. This person explores multiple approaches to arrive at a final solution to ensure that the product provides the best user experience.

    Number of Job Openings: 863
    Median Base Salary: $91,800
    Career Opportunities Rating: 3.6

10. Software Architect

A software architect is a software expert that designs software applications and dictates how the software will be implemented in an enterprise.

    Number of Job Openings: 653
    Median Base Salary: $130,000
    Career Opportunities Rating: 3.4

 

Why did Google choose Java as default application programming language for Android


Here are a few reasons why Google chose Java for its Android operating system

Google hit a bullseye with smartphone users when it brought out the first version Android operating system. At that time when Nokia and its proprietary Symbian operating system, ruled the roost in smartphone market, Google brought out the first version of Android in 2007. Today Android smartphones rule the world with over 85 percent of the smartphones in the world running on various versions of Android operating system.

Android’s source code is released by Google under open source licenses, although most Android devices ultimately ship with a combination of open source and proprietary software, including proprietary software required for accessing Google services.
Android

Android is based on the Linux kernel and designed primarily for touchscreen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets. Android’s user interface is mainly based on direct manipulation, using touch gestures that loosely correspond to real-world actions, such as swiping, tapping and pinching, to manipulate on-screen objects, along with a virtual keyboard for text input.

The Android Apps and games, which are so popular among smartphone users are compiled by developers using the Android software development kit (SDK). This Android SDK is compiled using Java programming language. So, why Java?
So why did Google choose Java over other programming languages

The basic advantages of having Java programming language for Android SDKs is given below :

    Java is a known language, developers know it and don’t have to learn it. Java has yet again emerged as the world’s most popular programming language. Also there are lots of engineers who specialise in Java making it easier for them to compile Apps and Games.
    It’s harder to shoot yourself with Java than with C/C++ code since it has no pointer arithmetic.
    It runs in a VM, so no need to recompile it for every phone out there and Java is easy to secure. This is Java’s very important feature. Running on a VM (thus no recompiling) is a huge plus. Also, it easily separates processes from each other, preventing a rogue application from destroying your phone or interfering with other applications. Every App has assigned its own address. All addresses are translated by MMU. This provides base level security to the App and the Android ecosystem by preventing leakages.
    As said in point number 1 above, since Java is the most popular programming language, a large number of development tools are available for developers. Java has huge open source support, with many libraries and tools are available to make developers life easier.
    Several mobile phones already used Java ME, so Java was known in the mobile industry and the engineers.
    The speed difference is not an issue for most applications; if it was you should code in low-level language
    Also Android as a operating system runs on many different hardware platforms including smart TVs, Android wear etc. Given that almost all VMs JIT compile down to native code, raw code speed is often comparable with native speed. A lot of delays attributed to higher-level languages are less to do with the VM overhead than other factors (a complex object runtime, ‘safety’ checking memory access by doing bounds checking, etc).
    Java allows developers to create sandbox applications, and create a better security model so that one bad App can’t take down your entire OS.

In addition to above points, at the time of development of first version of Android, the available languages like Go and Rust werent exactly popular and quite niche programming languages, so prioritising native languages would’ve meant the Android development team going with C or C++.

Go was used in the earlier versions of Android and found to have its limitations. Rust was smaller still, so betting Android’s whole OS’s development ecosystem on such a niche language would’ve been a bad idea.

Even the most diehard of programmers and coders will agree that C and C++ are notoriously difficult to work with, and even very senior engineers make dangerous mistakes very often. This is the reason, Microsoft chose to develop its on .NET architecture, however developing a separate language for Android would not have been feasible for Google at that time.

Also during the time the first Android version was being worked on, the JVM/CLR languages (i.e. the Java family and the C#/.NET family) were under ownership of Sun and Microsoft respectively. So it would not have been feasible for Google to use its ‘enemies’ programming language. Only after Oracle bought out Java and Google reached an understanding with Oracle that all proprietary issues were resolved.

Java is an absolutely massive ecosystem, and you have an embarrassing wealth of both libraries and tooling available for it, which mitigates how mediocre the language itself is. Where Apple had home field advantage by using Objective C in iOS (with Obj-C being the primary language for OS X development), Google’s choice of Java meant not having to build that ecosystem from scratch.

As seen above, Java was simply the best choice available at the time. Google has never officially commented on why it is using Java for Android SDKs but the above reasons are enough for Google and the Android team to back Java all the way.

Nuclear Power Plants Are The Next Easy Target Of Hackers All Over The World

 
cyber attack nuclear power plant hacker

Image: NTI Nuclear Security Index

Today, we are at a crossroads on nuclear security and the emerging threats in the form of cyber attacks and nuclear terrorism. Bur, our nuclear plants have failed to add necessary security measures to handle the cyber threats and potential security breaches. Based upon the two latest security reports, we have tried to assess the present day scenario which is too vulnerable.

 
The nuclear power plants around the world are living in a state of denial about the risks of possible cyber attacks. These highly sensitive facilities have failed to install the necessary security measures to protect their computer networks. Apart from this, 20 countries with nuclear fuel stockpile don’t have any government regulations to install some minimum security steps.

 

Such sorry state of our nuclear power plants was recently revealed in two different studies conducted by Security Operations Center (SOC) and the Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI). Let’s tell you more about the situation:

“Security measures employed by Security Operations Center (SOC) aren’t enough”

The first report is an audit of Security Operations Center for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Studying the affairs between 2013 and 2014, it was revealed that during this period the cyber attacks against US nuclear power plants grew with 18%. In the 18-page assessment report, it was highlighted that the computer networks used by NRC pose a real threat due to inadequate security measure. The NRC’s general inspector added that the measures deployed aren’t “optimized to protect the agency’s network in the current cyber threat environment.”

In the past, the sophistication of cyber attacks against nuclear power plants have increased. The hackers have attempted to gain unauthorized access using social engineering, code injection techniques, and other attempts.

It was reported that SOC, the in-charge of security at NRC, does not meet the agency needs and lacks predictive analysis to keep its networks protected.

“20 countries scored a disappointing 0 against theft and sabotage in nuclear power plants”

The second study, conducted by the Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI), outlines the worldwide situation that reveals the gloomy condition of nuclear power plants. In this study, 47 countries were included — out of these, 24 had weapon-usable nuclear materials and 23 had nuclear facilities but they didn’t produce usable material.

Surprisingly, only 13 countries scored a perfect score of 4 when their preparations against a cyber attack (sabotage and theft) were examined. These countries were Australia, Belarus, Bulgaria, Canada, Finland, France, Hungary, the Netherlands, Russia, Switzerland, Taiwan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

On the other hand, 20 countries scored a disappointing 0 against theft and sabotage. These countries were Algeria, Argentina, Armenia, Bangladesh, Belgium, Brazil, Chile, China, Egypt, Indonesia, Iran, Italy, Kazakhstan, Mexico, Morocco, North Korea, Peru, Slovakia, Spain, and Uzbekistan.

The Nuclear Threat Initiative publishes this annual index that examines the nuclear security all around the work. The agency also mentions that in the past few years many countries have improved their security measures but it isn’t enough.

Take a look at this year’s NTI security index scores below:nuclear-power-plants-from-all-over-the-world-are-vulnerable-to-cyberattacks-nti-report

Nuclear power plants are highly sensitive facilities that need the extra layer of security measures. Employing an army of security personnel for security purposes will be useless if these plants are vulnerable to hacking attacks. These reports suggest that immediate steps must be taken regarding this issue in everybody’s best interests.

How To Maximize Battery Life On Windows 10

Windows is known for poor battery life — irrespective of the Windows version you are using. People often wonder how to maximize battery life on Windows 10. Finally, we decided that we write an article over a guide to maximize the Windows 10 battery life:

How to Maximize the Windows 10 battery life?
Windows 10 battery saver mode:

Windows 10 comes with two power modes: Battery saver mode and the default mode. Well, The battery saver mode surely stops your Windows from sucking your power. It reduces the battery usage as much as 20 percent on normal mode.
Uninstall the unnecessary apps:

Windows 10 comes with a plethora of apps. I, personally, do not use News app, Store and many other. These apps keep sucking the battery life in the background. So, it is better to uninstall these apps.
Uninstall the unnecessary programs:

To maximize the battery life on Windows 10, it is recommended that you uninstall the unnecessary programs. Sometimes, these programs keep on updating in the background which you are not aware of. It does not only consumes your internet data but also, it keeps on taking the toll on the battery life.
Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, and Other Settings:

You do not need to leave Wi-Fi or Bluetooth turned on always. They keep on working and keep on sucking the battery out of your PC. So while watching a movie, or when you leave your PC idle for some time, turn off these settings, they are surely gonna save some battery life on Windows 10.
Update Windows While Charging:

Well, you do not have much control over Windows update on Windows 10. There are though certain ways to stop the Windows 10 upgrade but Windows keeps on popping out unnecessary notifications, almost bugging you to the core of your heart to update it. Well, you never know how long the Windows 10 takes. Sometimes, updating Windows 10 takes until eternity. It is advised that you keep your PC on charge while updating the Windows.

Reduce the volume:

We often leave the volume higher even though we are just typing or doing some work which do not actually need the volume to be up. Moreover, most of the laptops, these days, come with powerful speaker inbuilt. Though these speakers give you the soothing sound but they also suck the hell out of your battery life. So reduce the volume level on your Windows 10 while chatting or typing or doing something which does not need the higher volume.

Unplug Unnecessary Peripherals:

We often leave our mobile phones connected to the USB cables to our PC. Even though they consume the smallest amount of battery out of your PC but still it counts. So you might want to discontinue your mobile on being kept on charging. So keep a watch over USB cables, external mouse, Bluetooth-powered mouse, SD card and external keyboard and much more.

Keep your desktop and system drive clean:

When you boot up your PC, Windows 10 loads the most of the content of the C drive (or the drive where Windows is installed). The first thing we see on any PC after we power on it is Desktop. That means all the icons which are spread over the desktop are a part of C drive and they are also loaded up when the PC is powered up. So, try to keep your desktop clean so that Windows 10 does not have to load the entire programs scattered over the desktop.

Manage the brightness:

Brightness also consumes a lot of battery. So when watching a movie in a dark room, try to keep the brightness low. Or when you do not want your machine to be shut down and you are going somewhere, keep it dimmer. Keeping the brightness low in Windows 10 will save a lot of battery.

How to use your Android smartphone as remote mouse and keyboard for your PC

Here is how you can control your PC/laptop with your Android smartphone/tablet using it either as keyboard or mouse.

Android OS has increased the overall usage domain of mobile phones in a short period of time. Since it is always fun to do the awesome things with your smartphone, we are presenting a new way to use your Android smartphone/tablet. That is as a keyboard or mouse for your PC.

Before we begin, you must know this “this process will only work with Intel based PCs”. Now first of all you have to get Android Remote Keyboard App and software.

How to Set Up Intel Remote Keyboard

  1. Download Intel Remote Keyboard on your Android device or tablet.
  2. Download and install the Intel Remote Keyboard Host on your Windows PC. You will need to choose x86 or x64 depending on your Windows. If you aren’t sure what you are running, there are four easy ways to know if you’re on 64-bit Windows.
    (Important: Make sure your Android and Windows devices are connected to the same Wi-Fi network.)
  3. On your Android phone, tap the Windows device name.
  4. Your Windows PC will now show a large QR code. Just scan it with your Android smartphone’s camera (following the on-screen instructions) and the two devices will be paired.
  5. You’re all set!

What you can do:

How to use Android as keyboard or mouse for PC

The App is basically a virtual trackpad and keyboard for your computer. You can use it in portrait or landscape mode.

In portrait mode, your screen is divided into the trackpad area on the top and keyboard at the bottom. Intel’s keyboard looks much like any Android keyboard, but also has a Windows button, an Esc button, and the four arrow keys.

How to use Android as keyboard or mouse for PC

remote keyboard

Stuff which should have been there:

There could be some enhanced controls to fully optimise the facility. First, there is no “continuous scrolling” , that means you have to touch scroll button many times for scrolling upto a large distance. Second there is no “direct volume control” , since it is always convenient to adjust volume by using a dedicated key than to use mouse. We firmly expect that these features will be added in the upcoming updates.